Doctor of Medicine (MD) / Master in Surgery (MS)


M.D. of Doctor of Medicine is a highly sought after postgraduate medicine course, that candidates generally pursue after completing their M.B.B.S. undergraduate course. M.D. is always pursued in a specific specialization such as Radiology, Cardiology, Gastroenterology etc. This is a 3 year/6 academic term course which also includes a rigorous examination that tests both the theoretical and practical skills of the candidate.

This course is highly focused on a practical & research-based methodology instead of just theoretical knowledge. Medical Council of India is the singular authority that has the mandate to oversee, approve and recognize all the medical colleges to see if they are fit to provide this degree.

Candidates need to be ready for a lot of reading& studying if they wish to pursue their M.D. course. It is perhaps one of the most popular courses chosen by M.B.B.S. graduates due to many factors, including the expected remuneration after course completion.


Only those candidates who hold an M.B.B.S. degree are eligible to apply for the M.D. courses. In addition to this, the M.B.B.S. degree must be from a university that is recognised by the Medical Council of India. The exact percentage required to apply may vary across institutes. The score & rank obtained in the common entrance exam (NEET-PG, AIIMS-PG, JIPMER-PG) forms the criteria for selection & admission.


M.D. is always pursued in a particular specialisation, and this more or less determines the field of expertise the candidate wants to take in their medical career. There are many specialisations, some of which are :

  • Dermatology
  • Radio-therapy
  • Radio-diagnosis
  • Orthopedics
  • Pathology
  • General medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • General surgery
  • Ophthalmology
  • Paediatrics
  • Forensic medicine
  • Psychiatry
  • ENT
  • Pulmonary Medicine/Respiratory Medicine
  • Transfusion Medicine/Immuno-Haematology and Blood Transfusion
  • Anaesthesiology
  • Geriatrics
  • Pharmacology
  • Preventive and social medicine/community medicine
  • Emergency and critical care/emergency medicine
  • Sports medicine
  • Family medicine
  • Biochemistry
  • Community health and administration
  • Hospital administration
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
Written Examination

At the completion of the course (3 years/6 academic terms) the candidates have to undergo a mandatory written examination, which is organised to evaluate and certify the candidate’s skill, both theoretical and practical.

It is common practice that candidates are required to secure a minimum of 50% marks, both in theory and in practical sections separately for passing the examination.

Thesis Requirement

It is mandatory for candidates to carry out an exhaustive research project, under the purview of a recognised senior postgraduate teacher and submit the project at least 6 months prior to their course completion examination. The candidate is allowed to appear for the theory and practical examinations only when their thesis is accepted by the examining panel which consists of 3 examinaters (1 internal and 2 external). These examiners shall not be the ones who conduct the theory & practical examinations to ensure a fair & transparent selection and grading process.

Theory Portions
(i) 4 x Theory Papers.

For M.D. courses in Basic Medical Sciences, the syllabus will be as per the allotted distribution. Each paper will consist of 2 x essay type questions (of 25 marks each) and 5 x short answer questions (of 10 marks each).

Model question papers are available for each specialisation.

For M.D. courses in Clinical disciplines, Paper-I will consist of Basic Medical Sciences and Paper-IV will consist of topics from Recent Advances in the concerned subjects.

Paper-I of all Clinical subjects will have 10 x short answers (of 10 marks each).

Paper-II to Paper-IV will have 2 x essay type questions (of 25 marks each) and 5 x short answer questions (of 10 marks each).

Model question papers on each specialisation is easily available online.

(ii) Basic Medical Sciences (iii) In order to ensure a smooth assessment and evaluation process, the theory examinations are generally held before the clinical/practical examinations.
Clinical/Practical and Oral

(i)In order to test the candidate’s knowledge and level of competence in the Clinical Sciences subjects, they are required to undergo an examination which contains 1 x long case and 2 x short cases.

(ii) To test the candidate’s skill and competence for making valid observations on experiments and laboratory studies they are required to give a practical examination in Basic Medical Sciences .

(iii) To test each candidate’s knowledge about the subject and to know their competence in investigative procedures, therapeutic technique and other aspects of the specialisation they are required to undergo an oral examination.

Is it suitable for you?
  • Candidates must possess excellent communication and interpersonal skills as they would be dealing with a large variety of people.
  • Candidates must stay updated with the improvements in the field of technological advancements & medical innovations.
  • Patience & physical stamina are key traits to meet the gruelling demands of this profession.
  • Candidates must possess great skill in performing tasks, especially with their hands.
Employment opportunities
  • Biomedical Companies
  • Health Centres
  • Hospitals
  • Laboratories
  • Medical Colleges
  • Medical Foundation/Trust
  • Non-Profit Organizations
  • Nursing Homes
  • Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Companies
  • Polyclinics
  • Private Practice
  • Research Institutes
Type of jobs
  • Anaesthetist or Anaesthesiologist
  • Bacteriologist
  • Cardiologist
  • Chief Medical Officer (CMO)
  • Chiropodist
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientist
  • Dermatologist
  • E.N.T. Specialist
  • Enterologist
  • Gastroenterologist
  • General Practitioner
  • General Surgeon
  • Gynaecologist
  • Hospital Administrator
  • Medical Admitting Officer
  • Neurologist
  • Nutritionist
  • Obstetrician
  • Orthopaedist
  • Paediatrician
  • Pathologist
  • Physician
  • Physiologist
  • Psychiatrist
  • Radiologist
  • Resident Medical Officer